Automotive Service and Repair
Loose gas caps, underinflated tires, faulty thermostats, worn spark plugs, malfunctioning engine controls, poor wheel alignment and the list goes on. These are among the conditions that daily cost consumers millions of dollars in wasted fuel.
"Something as innocuous as an improperly tightened gas cap, for example, or one that's missing or defective, might seem a minor factor," said Rich White of the Car Care Council. "But consider that 17 percent of the vehicles on U.S. highways have either misused or missing gas caps, causing 147,000,000 gallons of gas per year to vaporize into the atmosphere (source: Service Tech Magazine, September 2000).
"To the maxim 'waste not, want not,' we need to add 'be car care aware,' because most drivers are unaware of the economic consequences of neglected maintenance."
White said the nearly 150 million gallons of gas out of the filler cap are literally a drop in the bucket of waste.
"Among the six worst offenders are underinflated tires and incorrect wheel alignment, conditions which increase rolling resistance. Like driving with the parking brake not fully released, it can cost a mile or two per gallon on a car that normally delivers 20 miles per gallon. "Among other gas guzzlers," said White, "are dirty oil, a mile per gallon; a slipping automatic transmission, another mile per gallon and as much as two mpg for a cooling system thermostat that causes the engine to run too cold.
"Finally, there could be a malfunction of one or more components in the fuel, ignition or emission control systems, especially critical in cold weather driving. The fuel penalty for just one misfiring spark plug is two or three miles per gallon."Combining all of these discrepancies into one vehicle, the cost of wasted fuel easily could exceed recent increases in pump prices," said White. "It's what being car care aware is all about."
"Suspension," when discussing cars, refers to the use of front and rear springs to suspend a vehicle's "sprung" weight. The springs used on today's cars and trucks are constructed in a variety of types, shapes, sizes, rates, and capacities. Types include leaf springs, coil springs, air springs, and torsion bars. These are used in sets of four for each vehicle, or they may be paired off in various combinations and are attached by several different mounting techniques. The suspension system also includes shocks and/or struts, and sway bars.
Back in the earliest days of automobile development, when most of the car's weight (including the engine) was on the rear axle, steering was a simple matter of turning a tiller that pivoted the entire front axle. When the engine was moved to the front of the car, complex steering systems had to evolve. The modern automobile has come a long way since the days when "being self-propelled" was enough to satisfy the car owner. Improvements in suspension and steering, increased strength and durability of components, and advances in tire design and construction have made large contributions to riding comfort and to safe driving. Cadillac produced the first American car to use a steering wheel instead of a tiller.
Two of the most common steering mechanisms are the "rack and pinion" and the standard (or recirculating-ball) systems that can be either manual or assisted by power. The rack and pinion was designed for sports cars and requires too much driver muscle at low speeds to be very useful in larger, heavier cars. However, power steering makes a heavy car respond easily to the steering wheel, whether at highway speeds or inching into a narrow parking place, and it is normal equipment for large automobiles.
The suspension system has two basic functions, to keep the car's wheels in firm contact with the road and to provide a comfortable ride for the passengers. A lot of the system's work is done by the springs. Under normal conditions, the springs support the body of the car evenly by compressing and rebounding with every up-and-down movement. This up-and-down movement, however, causes bouncing and swaying after each bump and is very uncomfortable to the passenger. These undesirable effects are reduced by the shock absorbers.
The above information is directly from the Auto Insight program, which you can buy online from AutoEducation.com.